February 12th-13th, 2021
Your 10 minute read!
LAW, POLICY & GOVERNANCE
1. 17 major OTT players adopt self regulatory toolkit
- Even as the government is soon expected to come out with regulations for OTT platforms, the Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI) said 17 platforms have adopted a ‘toolkit’ for effective implementation of the self regulation code introduced last year. The industry body added that it will set up an ‘IAMAI Secretariat for the Code’, comprising representatives from the signatories to the Code, as well as the IAMAI, for its implementation.
2. Consider as representation plea against tree felling for metro work’
- The Delhi High Court asked a Central Empowered Committee (CEC), set up by the Supreme Court, to look into environment issues to consider as representation a petition to change from overground to underground the nature of Phase-IV of metro expansion to prevent cutting of over 11,000 trees.
3. Disabled entitled to facilities: SC
The government is not conferring “largesse” on disabled people by facilitating a scribe during the course of the Civil Services Examination, the Supreme Court held. The court said it is high time the government shed its “fundamental fallacy” that only persons with “bench-mark disability” or specified disability of 40% or more should be accommodated with a scribe while taking competitive tests like the Civil Services Examination.
This is a clear violation of the intent to provide “reasonable accommodation” for disabled persons under the Right to Persons with Disabilities (RPwD) Act of 2016. The judgment was based on an appeal filed on behalf of Vikash Kumar, a candidate with Writer’s cramp, a chronic neurological condition. He was denied a scribe for the Civil Services Exam by the UPSC in 2018, on the ground that he did not come within the definition of a person with bench-mark disability.
4. ‘Most buses still wheelchair-unfriendly’
Less than 7% of public buses in the country were fully accessible to wheelchair users as of December 2020, with the target of 25% of buses being accessible by June 2022 under the Accessible India Campaign getting closer, according to government data.
Apart from public buses, the Accessible India Campaign, was aimed at making government buildings, airports, railway stations and government websites accessible to persons with disabilities.
5. Intermarriages can reduce caste tensions, says court
Educated youngsters are showing the way forward to reduce caste and community tensions in India by tying the knot in intermarriages, the Supreme Court said in a recent judgment. The judgment came in a case filed by a lecturer, an MBA graduate, who fled from Bengaluru to Delhi to marry a man, an M. Tech. and assistant professor.
The court quashed the case against the couple and directed the police authorities to not only counsel the investigating officers but devise a training programme to deal with such cases for the benefit of the police personnel.
6. President will decide on Rajoana’s plea
The government informed the Supreme Court that President Ram Nath Kovind will take a decision on the mercy plea of Balwant Singh Rajoana, who has been in jail for 26 years for the assassination of former Punjab Chief Minister Beant Singh. Solicitor-General points to gravity of facts in Beant Singh assassination case.
The court said the law was settled that once the government had decided to recommend a presidential pardon for a condemned man, the pendency of appeals in the Supreme Court of his co-accused cannot delay the process initiated under Article 72 (presidential pardon) of the Constitution (https://indiankanoon.org/doc/1008926/).
7. SC seeks response on petition against Twitter
- The Supreme Court decided to examine a plea that says the social media platform Twitter is “sympathetic to terrorist groups”. Twitter has been accused of promoting and circulating prohibited content and hate messages. And, there was no mechanism or law to deal with the problem.
NATIONAL NEWS/ INTERVENTIONS
1. Coordinated disengagement at Pangong Tso, Rajnath tells RS
India and China have reached an agreement on disengagement in the Pangong lake area to cease their forward deployments in a phased, coordinated and verified manner and it would substantially restore the situation to that existing prior to the commencement of the standoff last year, Defence Minister Rajnath Singh said.
Tanks and mechanised elements have started moving back from the South Bank and distances, including the latitudes and longitudes, up to which they have to move back, had been agreed upon in the agreement. Both sides have worked out a detailed step by step plan for pullback of troops and equipment. Joint verification would be done together at each step.
In a pre-emptive move on August 29 and 30, 2020, the Army had occupied some unoccupied heights in the Chushul sector from Thakung to Rechin La within the Indian perception of the LAC, foiling the Chinese People’s Liberation Army attempts to dominate the heights. As part of the agreement, the Indian Army will vacate these peaks and pull back troops and equipment, while China would remove structures between Finger 4 to Finger 8 on the North Bank and withdraw troops.
2. Analysis : On the Uttarakhand deluge and challenges of hydropower development, Ravi Chopra
It’s a folly to be building dams, and hydro power projects above elevations of 2,200 metres. The cost of solar power has been dramatically reduced and it makes no sense to generate power at ₹7-8 per unit when solar power is ₹2. Also, there is no sustainable way to develop such projects given the ﬂouting of environmental norms and challenges with the disposal of debris, accumulated muck. Dams in the paraglacial zone (above 2,200 m) are a danger to the people below.
In Uttarakhand, we need a services based economy on information technology companies that will not be power intensive. And we also need to develop our roads, improve access and go about it in a thoughtful sustained manner such that it contributes to tourism. We must have a solar power based development. Industrial development here also has to be thought through.
3. India-China disengagement
The disengagement on the south bank of Pangong Tso (lake) will see Indian troops moving to their post in Chushul and Chinese troops to the Moldo garrison. In the next phase, additional Indian troops will move further down, around 40 km, to Tara-Rhongo post and Chinese troops to Dorjo. The next priority is Depsang and Gogra-Hot Springs.
The official spokesperson of the Ministry of Defence said that the Line of Actual Control was at Finger 8 and not at Finger 4 at Pangong Tso. The Ministry said India had not conceded any territory as a result of this agreement. In August 2020, Indian troops had taken advantageous positions on the hills on the south bank following which China matched presence, leading to an eyeball-to-eyeball confrontation. This incident followed China blocking Indian patrols at multiple locations in eastern Ladakh — north Pangong, Gogra-Hot Springs, Galwan, Depsang and CNN sector in Demchok – followed by amassing of troops and armaments.
The Defence Ministry stated that the assertion that the Indian territory is up to Finger 4 at Pangong Tso is categorically false, it said the territory of India is as depicted by the map of India and includes more than 43,000 sq km currently under illegal occupation of China since 1962.
Permanent posts of both sides of the north bank of Pangong Tso are longstanding and well-established, the Ministry said. On the Indian side, it is Dhan Singh Thapa Post near Finger 3 and on the Chinese side, east of Finger 8.
4. Railways to connect Aizawl by 2023
By March 2023, Aizawl will be linked to India’s railway grid, making Mizoram the fourth of the eight north eastern States to get railway connectivity. A statement issued by the Northeast Frontier Railway (NFR) said ₹1,000-crore has been allocated for the 2021-22 ﬁscal to be spent on the Bairabi-Sairang railway project that the Railway Ministry wants completed within the next two years. State capital Aizawl is 18 km uphill of Sairang.
Northeast Frontier Railway has been working on a project to link all State capitals in the region. So far, the capitals of three northeastern States have railway connectivity. These are Dispur (Assam), Agartala (Tripura) and Itanagar (Arunachal).
5. Against curbing social-media : Vice President
At a time when the government is involved in a tug-of-war with social media giant Twitter, Rajya Sabha Chairperson M. Venkaiah Naidu called for ‘moderation’ in the use of social media to prevent abuse. He suggested that these platforms should not be converted into war theatre and principle of moderation should be followed.
“Content for social media should be generated in a restrained and responsible manner by keeping the reactions to such content in mind. Such reﬂection would minimise oﬀensive posts. Provocation should not be the objective. Sharing of views for better perspectives should be,” he said.
INTERNATIONAL NEWS/EVENTS/ PERSONALITIES
1. U.S. imposes sanctions on Myanmar
Anti Coup protesters took to the streets of Myanmar for a sixth consecutive day, after the U.S. President Joe Biden announced sanctions against the Southeast Asian nation’s Generals and demanded they relinquish power. There has been an outpouring of anger and defiance since the military ousted civilian leader Aung San Suu Kyi last week and detained her along with other senior figures of her National League for Democracy (NLD) party.
Western nations have repeatedly denounced the coup, with the U.S. leading calls for the Generals to relinquish power. In the most significant concrete action to pressure the junta, Mr. Biden announced on Wednesday that his administration was cutting off the Generals’ access to $1 billion in funds in the U.S. European Union Foreign Policy Chief Josep Borrell has also warned the bloc could impose fresh sanctions on Myanmar’s military.
2. China pulls BBC World News off air for content ‘violation’
China’s broadcasting regulator announced it has pulled BBC World News from the air, saying the channel’s content had “seriously” violated guidelines for reporting in the country. In a statement, China’s National Radio and Television Administration (NRTA) said BBC World News reports about China were found to “seriously violate” broadcast guidelines, including “the requirement that news should be truthful and fair” and not “harm China’s national interests”.
The move comes after the BBC aired a report on February 3 detailing harrowing accounts of torture and sexual violence against Uighur women in Chinese camps. The NRTA “does not permit the BBC to continue broadcasting in China, and does not accept its new annual application for broadcast,” the statement from Beijing said. The BBC said it was disappointed with the move. “The BBC is the world’s most trusted international news broadcaster and reports on stories from around the world fairly, impartially and without fear or favour,” a BBC spokesperson said.
3. In call with Xi, Biden talks of ‘unfair economic practices’
U.S. President Joe Biden spoke with his Chinese counterpart Xi Jinping, the first call between the two leaders since Mr. Biden assumed office on January 20. Mr. Biden highlighted concerns about Beijing’s economic practices, its human rights record and “assertive actions in the region”, while affirming his priority of preserving a “free and open Indo-Pacific”, the White House said in a readout of the call.
“President Biden affirmed his priorities of protecting the American people’s security, prosperity, health, and way of life, and preserving a free and open IndoPacific. President Biden underscored his fundamental concerns about Beijing’s coercive and unfair economic practices, crackdown in Hong Kong, human rights abuses in Xinjiang, and increasingly assertive actions in the region, including toward Taiwan,” the White House said.
Mr. Xi, however, is reported to have said that Hong Kong, Taiwan and Xinjiang are matters internal to China, as per China’s state run Xinhua news agency
4. Erdogan’s call for revamped Constitution stirs suspicions
Four years after Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan assumed sweeping powers, he has wrongfooted his opponents once again by calling for a new Constitution, sparking accusations of trying to set up a diversion from the country’s woes.
The timing aroused immediate suspicions over the intentions of a man who has been at the apex of Turkish political life since 2003, first as Prime Minister and as President since 2014. The 66-year old Turkish leader is facing a sudden burst of student protests, an economy that was under strain even before the COVID-19 pandemic struck last year, and polls showing a melting support base.
The current Constitution was changed in a controversial 2017 referendum, which created an executive presidency. It went into force barely a year later when Mr. Erdogan won re-election, with the amendments allowing him to consolidate his power. Since then the only politicians demanding constitutional changes have been members of the opposition, all calling for a return to the previous parliamentary democracy.
5. Biden to allow asylum seekers into U.S
The U.S. government will begin to gradually process asylum seekers forced to wait in Mexico under a controversial programme put in place by former President Donald Trump. The moves are part of a plan by the administration of President Joe Biden to end the programme, known as the Migrant Protection Protocols (MPP).
The Trump administration launched the programme in 2019 as part of a wide-ranging crackdown on the ability to seek asylum in the U.S., the initiative forced more than 65,000 non-Mexican asylum seekers back across the border to wait for their U.S. court hearings. Mr. Biden vowed on the campaign trail to roll back restrictive Trump-era immigration policies, including MPP. Republicans embracing Mr. Trump’s hardline immigration views have criticised the ending of MPP and could use it as fuel for political at tacks if illegal immigration increases on Mr. Biden’s watch.
Under the new rules, migrants will need to register with international organisations over the Internet or by phone and await instructions. An international organisation will test migrants for COVID-19 while they are in Mexico.
6. Slap sanctions on Myanmar, say UN rights envoy
The United Nations human rights investigator for Myanmar urged the UN Security Council to consider imposing punitive sanctions, arms embargoes and travel bans in response to a military coup. The United States, which imposed its own sanctions on Thursday, urged other UN member states to follow suit, in its ﬁrst remarks to the Human Rights Council since returning to the forum.
China and Russia, which have close ties to Myanmar’s military, said they opposed holding the session. “What happened in Myanmar is essentially Myanmar’s internal aﬀairs,” said Chen Xu, China’s ambassador. Russian ambassador Gennady Gatilov said human rights issues should be addressed through “open dialogue and cooperation”.
7. Child malnutrition in Yemen
- About 4,00,000 children under the age of ﬁve are in danger of dying of acute malnutrition in war torn and impoverished Yemen, UN agencies said. They said half of those in the most vulnerable age bracket, or 2.3 million small children, are projected to suﬀer from severe malnutrition this year. The number of Yemeni children in danger of death from lack of food has increased to 4,00,000, an increase of 22% over 2020.
8. Mario Draghi is set to be Italy's new Prime Minister
- With almost all the political parties behind him, Mario Draghi is said to form a new government to lead Italy through the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the 73-year old economist has shown he is willing to take his time, and could take a few more days to ﬁnalise his cabinet. Italy has high hopes from the former European Central Bank Chief Mr. Draghi, dubbed ‘Super Mario’ after vowing to do “whatever it takes” to save the euro single currency in the 2010s debt crisis.
OPINIONS & ANALYSIS
Analysis : In Biden’s policy pursuit, the world order challenge
- Mr. Biden in office has already revealed that despite some differences in policy content and diplomatic style, his term is likely to show more continuity than change where the U.S. 's core interests are concerned, specifically in its ties with Russia, China and Iran.
- The White House said that, in his conversation with Russian President Vladmir Putin, he made it clear that the U.S. “will act firmly in defence of our national interests in response to actions by Russia” and brought up Ukraine, the cyber attacks and the poisoning of Russian Opposition leader Alexei Navalny.
(iii). US-Iran (JCPOA)
In office, Mr. Biden has shown little urgency on the JCPOA matter. Despite the sanctions, Iran’s regional influence remains significant, based on the backing of Shia militia in such diverse locales as Lebanon, Iraq, Yemen and Syria. The Iranian ability to mobilise militants across the region is viewed by Israel and some the Gulf Arab states as threatening their security, the latter being concerned about Iran’s influence with their Shia populations as well.
There will thus be no dramatic change in the U.S.’s approach to Iran on the nuclear question. The appointment of a Special Envoy for Iran, Robert Malley, suggests that the U.S. is looking at a long-term diplomatic engagement not just on nuclear issues but on all matters that have security implications for the U.S. and its regional partners.
Battle lines will thus remain in place in the region – Israel, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates will be in a faceoff with Iran and its allies, Iraq, Syria and its Shia militia – in a prolonged war of attrition that does not resolve any issue, but continues to wreak death and destruction.
(iv). Role of Qatar
- Alternatively, we could see a genuine regional effort to ease tensions and promote regional confidence, spearheaded by Qatar, working with Russia and, possibly, China. Qatar’s Foreign Minister has already proposed direct engagement with Iran.
(v). New World Order
- Not only is Russia now an influential player in the region, China, too, with its Belt and Road Initiative, has high stakes in regional stability. Mr. Biden will thus witness a new world order, shaped by a coalition of Russia, China and Iran, in which the U.S. is no longer the most significant role player. This tectonic change will define international affairs in coming decades.
Commentary : From Myanmar to Pakistan, lots of words but no action
- Two days after the February 1 coup ousting Aung San Suu Kyi and other National League for Democracy (NLD) leaders from power in Myanmar, Senior General Min Aung Hlaing found fault with the November 2020 general elections that returned the NLD to power with an increased majority.
(ii). Similarities and differences
Like in Pakistan, coups and decades of military rule in Myanmar have been institutional. There has been little room for a cabal of officers to take over (though attempts have been made); coup leaders have survived (and thrived) only because they had institutional support from their officers and men.
The international context is key for the survival of the generals – Ayub in Pakistan was much loved by the West, especially the Americans. Zia, from being shunned, turned out to be a ‘saviour’ for the Americans after the Soviets invaded Afghanistan. Gen. Musharraf, correctly accused of presiding over a military establishment that promoted terror groups, gave up Al-Qaeda leaders in instalments and placated an angry U.S. President George W. Bush.
In contrast, the West never engaged with isolationist Burmese generals. In the end, while first words matter, actions speak louder. Military rulers have contributed little to improving the lot of common people – in Myanmar or in Pakistan. They simply ended up perpetuating uniformed establishments.
Analysis : India's digital service tax
- Concerns have been raised, citing it discriminatory, a 2% tax that India has charged since April 2020 on revenues from digital services, applicable only to non-resident companies.
(ii). The evolution
In 2013, the Base Erosion and Proﬁt Shifting (BEPS) programme by the OECD [Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development] was launched at the behest of the G20 countries. Under the 15 action points, action point one was to look at the tax challenges of the digital economy.
The main problem was to ﬁnd a new way of taxing digital companies that are not adequately taxed because of how the rules are designed. The primary concern was that companies don’t have a physical location in the markets where they operate. And use the intangibles, which are hard to value. India, in 2016, became the ﬁrst country to implement the equalisation levy, on advertising services at 6%. This was basically on payments made to a non-resident by a resident advertising on the platform.
In 2016, the Akhilesh Ranjan Committee Report had suggested that in order to create a level playing ﬁeld between online businesses and brick-and-mortar businesses, digital businesses which do not have a physical presence in India but are able to enjoy a sustainable economic presence should be paying a certain amount of tax. This was how the equalisation levy of 2016 was conceptualised.
India, originally in 2018, had introduced a test for signiﬁcant economic presence in the Income Tax Act, according to which, if a company had users in India, it sort of deﬁned its economic connection with India, and therefore gives India the right to tax. While this was introduced in the Act, it did not have any value because the treaties would have to incorporate a similar provision for it to be applicable.
However, Unlike the 2016 levy, this 2020 levy was devoid of any sort of public consultation. It was a major surprise for the digital community. Other countries introduced DSTs akin to India’s equalisation levy. However, these have not been devoid of public consultation.
(iii). The U.K tax
One of the primary criticisms against India’s equalisation levy is that it is a tax on revenue as opposed to being a tax on proﬁts. U.K. allows companies to not pay any tax if their net operating margin is negative.
Companies that sell their own inventories are explicitly excluded from the scope of the U.K. DST. Whereas, India’s equalisation levy covers everything under the sun. A transaction that involves three jurisdictions, take the example of an Indian user located in the U.K., receiving services from a U.S. company. The U.K. DST contemplates that only 50% of the revenues from such a transaction would be chargeable to the U.K. DST.
(iv). Why the USTR finds India's DST problematic
The investigation ﬁnds that India’s equalisation levy discriminates against U.S. companies in particular. The reason for it is that the tax incident by design is on non-resident companies. And because the incident of the equalisation levy is mostly on U.S. companies, which is 72%. It’s arbitrary, as per the U.S. The USTR report also says that the same services oﬀered non-digitally are not taxed.
The report also claims that DST taxes companies with no permanent establishment in India, contravening international tax principles. The BEPS project is based on the fact that digital companies are able to enjoy sustained economic presence in other jurisdictions without being physically present. The international community is moving towards a scenario where such transactions ought to be taxed. Therefore, the USTR's argument is not on the fair side.
The report also claims that DST taxes a company’s revenue rather than its income. This is inconsistent with international tax practice that income, not revenue, is the appropriate basis of corporate taxation. The threshold that India has laid down for the equalisation levy is actually much below what the EU envisages.
The USTR and the 301 investigation : Section 301 investigations are unilateral in nature, because the USTR is essentially deciding whether a measure is violative of the U.S. 's rights. After the WTO law and the dispute settlement mechanism came into picture and the scope of the General Agreement on Trade in Services were expanded to include services as well, countries have been of the view that an international body should be looking at such disputes.
Commentary : Regulation lite : OTT platforms
India’s Internet Based Over-The-Top (OTT) streaming services have operationalised a code of self regulation from February 10, soon after the I&B Ministry announced that it had prepared a set of guidelines and directives for the industry.
The FIRs in U.P. against the Amazon Prime Video series, Tandav, invoking legal provisions on cyber terrorism, obscenity, promoting social enmity and defiling places of worship, on the ground that its portrayal of god was derogatory, and a plea in M.P. on the same series seeking a court direction to bring OTT channels under censorship laws indicate the growing oppressive environment. It is time the Centre took a firm stand against displays of manufactured out-rage and let newer channels of creativity flourish.
The collective initiative of the OTT services under the aegis of the Internet and Mobile Association of India, which places emphasis on abiding by the IPC, laws on women’s and children’s rights, copyright and age appropriate certification and parental control, while upholding Constitutional provisions on free speech, should be given an opportunity to work.
The idea that films must be pre-censored and arbitrary cuts made by government appointed nominees, mostly out of prejudice, is antiquated and repugnant to liberal societies. A policed approach to films and media can only grow a monoculture of propaganda.
ECONOMICS & FINANCE
1. Amazon moves SC in Future case
E-commerce major Amazon moved the Supreme Court to stay the operation of a Delhi High Court order of February 8, which had revoked an earlier direction to Future Group to maintain status quo on the sale of its retail assets to Reliance Industries. Amazon said the February 8 order was ‘ex-facie arbitrary and illegal’. The order was passed by a Division Bench of the High Court on an appeal ﬁled by Future Retail Limited (FRL).
Amazon urged the apex court to protect its interests by granting an ex-parte stay on the deal between FRL and Reliance. The U.S. ﬁrm said the court should intervene to protect its rights as the “balance of convenience” was in its favour.
2. GM closure of Maharashtra plant
The labour union of General Motors Company has urged the management to reconsider its decision to shut the Talegaon plant and either revive production till the unit is sold to GWM or keep it functional. The U.S. automobile ﬁrm had made it clear that its decision to close down the Talegaon plant in Maharashtra was ﬁnal and the company would not facilitate any automatic transfer of employees to China’s Great Wall Motors (GWM) along with the plant.
GM stated the closure decision was taken because there was no demand in export markets for the vehicles previously produced in Talegaon.
3. Dorsey, Jay-Z partner to promote bitcoin in India
Twitter founder and CEO Jack Dorsey plans to endow a trust with 500 BTC or bitcoins (about $23.7 million as of this writing) along with rapper Jay-Z to aid bitcoin development, with an initial focus on India and Africa. They said that It’ll be set up as a blind irrevocable trust, taking zero direction from them.
The Centre plans to ban private cryptocurrencies and is expected to introduce the Cryptocurrency and Regulation of Oﬃcial Digital Currency Bill, 2021, in the ongoing Budget session of Parliament. The Bill, however, is expected to provide some exceptions so as to aid the development of the technology underlying cryptocurrencies.
SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & ENVIRONMENT
1. Excessive alcohol can cause irreversible changes to DNA
Excessive alcohol consumption can cause irreversible changes to the DNA and these can persist even when alcohol is no longer consumed, revealed a study conducted by a team of researchers at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS) in Bengaluru. The eﬀects of alcohol were more pronounced in those who had started drinking at an early age. This suggests that starting to drink early may physically alter many genes, including those of the brain.
“Although we inherit genes from our parents, their expression is regulated in a unique manner in each person, and may be inﬂuenced by their lifestyle. Exposure to alcohol aﬀects the pattern of gene expression, and may explain some of the systemic complications,” said Dr. Murthy, a consultant in the Centre.
1. India in 12th Fazza International World Para Athletics grand Prix
Para-athletes Devender Kumar and Nimisha Suresh Chakkungalparambil won a gold medal each as India started its campaign at the 12th Fazza International World Para Athletics Grand Prix event by winning six medals here on Thursday.
India took the one-two position in men’s discus throw F44, with Pardeep winning the silver with a throw of 41.77m. Pranav Desai ran 11.76 seconds to claim the silver medal in men's 100m T64 event, while Vinod Kumar took the bronze in men's discus throw F52 with a throw of 18.52 metres. Rakshita Raju (5:22.15min) also clinched a bronze medal in the women's 1500m T11 event.
2. Mori to quit over 'sexist remarks'
- Tokyo Olympics chief Yoshiro Mori is to resign after he sparked outrage in Japan and abroad by claiming that women talk too much in meetings. The former prime minister has come under increasing pressure since remarks he made last week to members of the Japanese Olympic Committee. He apologised for the ‘sexist remarks’, while insisting he was repeating complaints made by others.
2. Domestic violence in India https://thewire.in/women/domestic-violence-india-underreported
3. Rajasthan and updating prison manual https://thewire.in/caste/rajasthan-prison-manual-amended-caste-labour
4. Shaheen Bagh verdict and Right to protest https://www.thequint.com/news/law/supreme-court-shaheen-bagh-judgment-impact-right-to-protest-violation-of-sc-judgment-international-law-experts#read-more
5. Animals and right to get protection https://www.livelaw.in/news-updates/karnataka-high-court-right-to-live-animals-human-being-right-to-get-protection-169794
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Sources referred to : The Hindu, The Indian Express, Live Law, Bar & Bench