February 14th-15th, 2021
Your 10 minute read!
LAW, POLICY & GOVERNANCE
1. SC refuses to review verdict on protesters
- The Supreme Court has refused to reconsider its judgement that the Shaheen Bagh protests against the Citizenship (Amendment) Act were inconvenient for commuters. The original judgment of October 7 last year declared the demonstrations and road blockades in the Shaheen Bagh area of the national capital as “unacceptable”. The Review Bench, which comprised the same judges who delivered the original judgment, said it did not find any “error apparent warranting reconsideration” in the verdict.
2. Lockdown: SC allows 100% fee collection by Rajasthan schools
The Supreme Court has stayed a Rajasthan High Court order to schools affiliated to Central and State secondary education boards to collect only 60% of the tuition fee for the lockdown period. Bench led by Justice A.M. Khanwilkar allowed schools to collect the entire arrears in six monthly instalments from March to August 2021.
In case parents have difficulty in paying the arrears, they should be allowed to approach the school authorities through individual representations. The management would consider them on a “case to case basis sympathetically”, the apex court said.
3. 22-year-old activist sent to Delhi police custody
- Disha Ravi, a 22year old climate activist, was remanded in custody of the Delhi police for five days after she was arrested from Bengaluru for allegedly sharing with Greta Thunberg a “toolkit” related to the farmers’ protests. The police said Ms. Ravi had edited the “toolkit” on February 3. According to the police, the activist is an editor of the “Toolkit Google Doc” and was a key conspirator in the document’s formulation and dissemination.
4. Farm unions call Disha Ravi arrest an ‘intimidation tactic’
- Protesting farm unions condemned the arrest of Bengaluru based climate activist Disha Ravi, who has been charged in connection with a “toolkit” to coordinate support for their protest. Climate activist charged with sedition for supporting ‘toolkit’.
NATIONAL NEWS/ INTERVENTIONS
1. YouTubers back to tickle Valley’s funny bone
- Kashmir’s comic YouTubers, who were rendered jobless and lost lakhs of followers after the August 5, 2019, decision to snap high speed Internet in the Valley, are back with their humour and sense of fun. It has been a week since the J&K administration restored 4G mobile Internet after 18 months, and the buzz is back on Valley Based YouTube channels, including the popular ‘Kashmiri Kalkharabs’ (Kashmiri quirks) with 7.2 lakh subscribers. There are over 100 YouTubers in Kashmir, mainly from modest backgrounds, who earn a living by uploading comedic content.
2. West Bengal to host Sanskriti Mahotsav
- The Union Culture Ministry’s flagship festival, the Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav (RSM), will be held in West Bengal this time, the Ministry said in a statement. Renowned artists, including local artistes, would participate in the festival of folk art forms, it said. The festival would give visitors a chance to reconnect with indigenous culture. The 10th edition of the festival was held in Madhya Pradesh in October 2019.
3. PM hands over Arjun Mk-1A tank to Army
Prime Minister Narendra Modi handed over the indigenous main battle tank Arjun Mk1A to the Army in a function at the Jawaharlal Nehru Indoor Stadium in Chennai. Chief of the Army Staff General Manoj Mukund Naravane received the model of the tank, designed and developed by Chennai-based Combat Vehicles Research & Development Establishment (CVRDE), a unit of the Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO).
“We will continue working to make our armed forces one of the most modern forces in the world. At the same time, the focus on making India atma nirbhar (self reliant) in the defence sector moves with full speed,” the Prime Minister said at the event.
The Arjun Mk1A has superior firepower, high mobility, excellent protection and crew comfort, with 14 major upgrades from Arjun Mk1, according to the CVRDE. The indent for 118 of these tanks would be placed shortly with the Heavy Vehicle Factory (HVF) at Avadi near Chennai.
4. ‘Inter-State boundary issue creating bad blood
- A day after Andhra Pradesh held an election in a disputed region in Odisha’s Koraput district, Union Petroleum Minister Dharmendra Pradhan said it was a matter of concern that a State had conducted panchayat elections inside another State’s geographical boundary.
5. Farm income mission off target
In the last year of its mission to double farmers income, the Centre admits that no actual assessment of farm income has been carried out since 2013. Ashok Dalwai, head of the committee on doubling farmers income, said that only the implementation of strategies was being monitored, rather than actual outcomes. He cautioned that the impact of the pandemic could have a dampening eﬀect on reaching the income target.
The government also did not provide any details on what the base year for this goal is or what the targeted income to be achieved by the 2022 deadline was, on questions raised in the Parliament. In response to a request for State-wise, year-wise income data, and the annual growth percentage required to achieve the 2022 targets, the Ministry responded that the National Sample Survey Oﬃce’s last survey on agricultural households was conducted in 2013. Asked how the Centre intended to monitor progress without such surveys, it was told that the “government has constituted an ‘Empowered Body’ to review and monitor the progress”.
Seven strategies had been identiﬁed by the committee: improvement in crop and livestock productivity, savings in production cost through eﬃcient use of resources, higher cropping intensity and diversiﬁcation towards high value crops, better price realisation and a shift to nonfarm jobs. “We presume that if the State and the Central governments are making progress on these strategies, then incomes also must be increasing,” Dr. Dalwai said.
His committee had used the NSSO’s 2013 income data and extrapolated it for 2015-16, chosen as the base year. The base income in that year was estimated at more than ₹97,000 per annum. “We estimated that the target income should be about ₹2 lakh per annum, from both farm and non farm income, by 2022,” he said.
6. UT status for J&K is temporary : Amit Shah
Home Minister Amit Shah told the Lok Sabha that the government would restore full statehood to Jammu and Kashmir at an appropriate time. Mr. Shah was replying to a discussion on the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation (Amendment) Bill, 2021, in the Lok Sabha. “This legislation has nothing to do with statehood, and Jammu and Kashmir will be accorded the status at an appropriate time,“ Mr. Shah said.
The J&K Reorganisation (Amendment) Bill seeks to merge the all-India services J&K cadre with the Arunachal Pradesh, Goa, Mizoram Union Territory (AGMUT) cadre. He said the region’s Union Territory status is temporary just like Article 370 itself granting special status to Jammu and Kashmir was supposed to be. Decentralisation and devolution of power have taken place in the UT following the revocation of Article 370, Mr. Shah said, noting that panchayat elections saw over 51% voting.
He assured the people of Jammu and Kashmir that “no one will lose their land”, adding that the government had suﬃcient land for development. Mr. Shah said the government expects around 25,000 government jobs to be created by 2022.
7. Inceltivize states for disinvestment in PSEs : Finance Commission Chairperson
The Centre should incentivise States to come clean on their ﬁscal deﬁcit positions, bring oﬀ-Budget liabilities above board and take up their own strategic disinvestment programmes for State-owned public sector enterprises, Fifteenth Finance Commission Chairperson N.K. Singh mooted in an interview.
Terming the Centre’s decision to “transparently” acknowledge a ﬁscal deﬁcit of 9.5% of GDP this year as “a very positive development”, Mr. Singh said that the Centre could incentivise the States to adopt a similar practice to enhance the conﬁdence of investors in India’s overall debt and ﬁscal deficit trajectory.
INTERNATIONAL NEWS/EVENTS/ PERSONALITIES
1. PLA paper offers clues to China’s moves
As India and China began the first steps of implementing a disengagement plan after more than nine months of a tense standoff at multiple points along the Line of Actual Control (LAC), the causes of last year’s border crisis still remain a mystery.
A once-in-a-decade military strategy document released by the People’s Liberation Army’s (PLA) leading think tank in 2013 offers some clues to China’s border moves, as it called for putting a stop to “nibbling” of territory as well as warned of India’s expanding maritime reach as it looked to stabilise its land borders, a development it viewed as a threat to China’s security interests. ‘The Science of Military Strategy’ released in 2013 by the Academy of Military Sciences was the third edition of the text, following previous versions in 1987 and 2001.
It outlined three stages of India’s military strategy since 1947 : a limited offensive strategy until the early 1960s, a period of “expansion on two fronts” from the 1960s to the early 1970s; a “maintain the land and control the sea” until the late 1980s, and “a major adjustment” after the end of the Cold War from “regional offence” to “regional deterrence” that stressed “the role of deterrence and not emphasising conquest and occupation of territory”.
In the view of the PLA think tank, India carried on with some aspects of what it inherited from British India’s military strategic thought, the core of which was “to treat Kashmir, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, and Assam as the internal lines of India’s defence; to incorporate Tibet into its sphere of influence as a buffer state; and to treat the illegally concocted McMahon Line [which China doesn’t recognise, on the eastern sector] and the Ardagh-Johnson Line [in the western sector] as its security inner ring”.
The text claimed that with the rise of India’s national power, the “offensive” elements “have been increasing” but “restricted to the South Asian subcontinent and the Indian Ocean situation”. For China, it noted that while “the possibility of a large scale land invasion war occurring is fairly low nonetheless some border demarcation problems are hanging in the balance, and some border area nibbling and counter nibbling, and frictional and counter frictional struggles will be present for the long term”.
China has unresolved land borders with India and Bhutan. The PLA strategy predicted that India would look to stabilise its land borders and pay more attention to the sea, a development it viewed as unfavourable for China’s interests. Written eight years ago, it **foresaw deepening ties among the Quad *– India, U.S., Japan and Australia – and noted “against this backdrop, Japan’s going southward and India’s advancing eastward might intersect in the South China Sea, forming ‘dual arcs’ from the directions of two oceans, and Japan and Australia would constitute ‘dual anchors’ at the south and north ends of the Western Pacific*”
2. Draghi sworn in as new PM as Italy hopes to turn the page
Former European Central Bank chief Mario Draghi was formally sworn in as Italy’s new Prime Minister, against the backdrop of the deadly coronavirus pandemic and a crippling recession. The appointment of the 73-year old known as “Super Mario” capped weeks of political instability for the country still in the grips of the health crisis that has killed more than 93,000 people.
Mr. Draghi was parachuted in by Mr. Mattarella after the previous centre-left coalition under premier Giuseppe Conte collapsed, leading Italy rudderless amid the worst recession since the Second World War. After assembling a broad based coalition, on Friday night Mr. Draghi formally accepted the post of premier, publicly revealing the new Cabinet for the first time.
3. Biden wants to shut prison at Guantanamo
U.S. President Joe Biden wants to close the Guantanamo Bay prison for terror suspects before the end of his term, the White House said on Friday, echoing an unfulfilled campaign promise from Barack Obama’s administration. Asked at a press conference about a possible closure of the prison in Cuba during Mr. Biden’s tenure, spokeswoman Jen Psaki said, “That certainly is our goal and our intention.”
In his 2016 presidential campaign, Donald Trump expressed willingness to keep the Guantanamo prison open and “fill it with bad guys”. The Republican retained this position once elected. However, some detainees were promised their release from Guantanamo under his Democratic predecessor Obama, but he never succeeded in working out a compromise with Congress.
4. Senate acquits Trump of incitement
Former U.S. President Donald Trump was acquitted by the U.S. Senate in the impeachment trial of inciting an insurrection with regard to the January 6 attack on the Capitol by a mob of his supporters seeking to stop the certification of the Electoral College results. At the conclusion of proceedings that began last week, the Senate voted 57-43 on Saturday to acquit Mr. Trump.
A majority of 67 votes would have been required for a conviction. Mr. Trump’s second impeachment trial was shorter than his first in 2020 and relied in large measure on video footage of the former President’s incendiary remarks and the Capitol attack. The defence argued that he did not incite “what was already going to happen'' on January 6 and that his comments were protected by his right to free speech by the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
5. Russia’s Foreign Minister holds talks on climate with U.S. envoy
Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov discussed climate change with U.S. envoy John Kerry and the two agreed to cooperate further within the Arctic Council, the Russian Foreign Ministry said. “During the conversation, questions were raised about the implementation of the Paris climate accord,” the Russian Foreign Ministry said in a statement released late on Saturday.
The Foreign Minister told Mr. Kerry, a former Secretary of State who is now the U.S. climate envoy, that he “welcomed” the decision by new U.S. President Joe Biden to rejoin the landmark Paris Agreement on curbing global emissions of greenhouse gases. Mr. Biden’s predecessor Donald Trump had pulled out of the 2015 accord.
The two men also “underlined the need for as wide a cooperation as possible” in the area of the environment. They also agreed to “develop cooperation” within the Arctic Council — a high-level intergovernmental forum that addresses various issues, including sustainable development and environmental protection in the Arctic region.
The conversation came at a time when already strained relations between Russia and the West have been further exacerbated by the arrest and imprisonment of Russian opposition figure Alexei Navalny and Moscow’s merciless crackdown on the ensuing protests. Earlier this month, Mr. Biden said the U.S. would no longer be “rolling over in the face of Russia’s aggressive actions'' and demanded Mr. Navalny’s release.
6. Pakistan Army conducts exercises in Thar Desert
The Pakistan Army is holding a month-long exercise in the Thar Desert, located in the Sindh province, to prepare for conflict in extreme desert environments. The exercise, codenamed ‘JidarulHadeed’, began on January 28 and is scheduled to conclude on February 28.
The Army has a Desert Warfare School at Chhor, which is 165 km from Hyderabad, Sindh. The school was established in 1987 to promote desert warfare. The Thar Desert is an arid region that covers over 2,00,000 sq km. It forms a natural boundary along the border between India and Pakistan. Meanwhile, a multinational naval exercise hosted by Pakistan, Aman-2021, began in the Arabian Sea. It will conclude on February 16. As many as 45 countries, including the U.S., Russia, China and Turkey, will be participating in the exercise.
7. UAE’s Hope Probe sends home first image of Mars
The UAE’s Hope Probe sent back its first image of Mars, the national space agency said Sunday, days after the spacecraft successfully entered the Red Planet’s orbit. The picture “captured the largest volcano in the solar system, Olympus Mons, emerging into the early morning sunlight”, it said in a statement. The image was taken from an altitude of 24,700 km above the Martian surface, a day after the probe entered Mars’ orbit, it said in a statement.
Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid AlMaktoum, UAE Prime Minister and Dubai’s ruler, shared the coloured image on Twitter. “The first picture of Mars captured by the first ever Arab probe in history,” he wrote. The mission is designed to reveal the secrets of Martian weather, but the UAE also wants it to serve as an inspiration for the region’s youth.
Hope became the first of three spacecraft to arrive at the Red Planet this month after China and the U.S. also launched missions in July, taking advantage of a period when the Earth and Mars are nearest. The UAE’s venture is also timed to mark the 50th anniversary of the unification of the nation’s seven emirates. Hope will orbit the Red Planet for at least one Martian year, or 687 days.
8. Russia’s increasing poverty rates fuel political discontent
The COVID-19 pandemic has delivered a new blow to Russia’s stagnating economy, which was already chafing under Western sanctions, low oil prices and weak corporate investment. Observers say that rising poverty, falling incomes and lack of tangible government support during the pandemic are fuelling discontent with President Vladimir Putin’s two decade rule and strengthening the opposition.
Answering the jailed Kremlin critic Alexei Navalny’s call, tens of thousands of people have protested across Russia over the past few weeks. Russians’ real disposable incomes have been falling for the past half decade, and contracted by 3.5% in 2020, while the cost of basic foodstuff has surged.
OPINION & ANALYSIS
Analysis : Spotlight on dams after Chamoli disaster
(i). The story so far
- A snow avalanche triggered possibly by a landslide caused a flash flood in the Rishi Ganga river, a tributary of the Alaknanda in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand, washing away a functional small hydroelectric project and destroying the under construction 520 MW Tapovan Vishnugad project of the NTPC on the Dhauli Ganga river.
(ii). Why did it happen?
- Union Home Minister Amit Shah told Parliament that satellite imagery from Planet Labs indicated that the landslide avalanche event at an altitude of 5,600 metres occurred in a glacier in the Rishi Ganga catchment, and covered an area of 14 sq. km, causing the flood.
(iii). Why is the Chamoli incident of concern?
Uttarakhand, which gained a distinct identity in the year 2000 as a separate State carved out from Uttar Pradesh, is geologically unique. As a part of the lesser Himalaya, in the populated terrane – a region bounded by earth faults – it remains active in terms of deep movement of rock assemblages.
There are several researchers who refer to other characteristics that call into question the wisdom of committing vast resources to large dam building in Uttarakhand. A key concern is the active nature of rock fractures, known as faults, which respond to earthquakes, creating enormous instability, especially along slopes.
Moreover, the geology of mountains in many parts of Uttarakhand is such that the threat of landslides is high. Rocks here have been weakened by natural processes across time and are vulnerable to intense rainfall as well as human interference, in the form of house building and road construction. The careless disposal of enormous debris from mining and construction projects has added to the problem, blocking flow paths and providing additional debris.
(iv). Should Uttarakhand worry about the effects of climate change?
- The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate found that in the Himalayan ranges, there could be variations in overall water availability, but floods, avalanches and landslides were all forecast to increase. Changes in monsoonal precipitation could also bring more frequent disasters. In 2013, catastrophic loss of lives was seen in the floods that swept Kedarnath. They were triggered by heavy rainfall over a short period in June, first destroying a river training wall, and then triggering a landslide that led to the breaching of the Chorabari moraine dammed lake, devastating Kedarnath town. What this means is that aberrations in the Indian summer monsoon caused by changes to long term climate could produce even greater damage, by bringing debris and silt down the river courses, destroying physical structures, reducing dam life, and causing enormous losses.
(v). Are expensive hydroelectric projects worth the investment today?
- The International Renewable Energy Agency estimated that in 2019, the average levelized cost of electricity in India was $0.060 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) for small hydropower projects added over the last decade. In comparison, the global cost for solar power was $0.068 per kWh in 2019 for utility scale projects. Though hydropower has been reliable where suitable dam capacity exists, in places such as Uttarakhand, the net benefit of big dams is controversial because of the collateral and unquantified damage in terms of loss of lives, livelihoods and destruction of ecology. Chipko movement activist Sunderlal Bahuguna argued that large dams with an expected life of about 100 years, that involve deforestation and destruction, massively and permanently alter the character and health of the hills.
Analysis : Endless war in Yemen
- The Biden administration’s decision to end U.S. support for Saudi Arabia’s Yemen war is a signal to Riyadh that the Trump-era open support it had enjoyed is a matter of the past.
(ii). Obama & Trump favoured Saudi-Arabia
The U.S. offered support to Saudi Arabia’s campaign against the Houthi rebels in Yemen when Barack Obama was the President. Donald Trump continued that policy, overlooking the disastrous effects of the war that has turned Yemen, one of the poorest Arab countries, into a humanitarian catastrophe.
In its last hours, the Trump State Department designated the Houthis, who are backed by Iran, as a terrorist organisation. Rights groups have condemned the move, saying that the designation would complicate aid efforts as the Houthis control a sizable part of Yemen, including the capital.
(iii). Biden’s withdrawal of support
- Mr. Biden has now taken a different line, initiating steps to remove the Houthis from the terror list, among other actions. This is part of his larger attempts to rewrite the U.S.’s West Asia policy which, under Mr. Trump, was almost entirely focused on containing Iran. The administration’s message seems to have reached Riyadh.
(iv). Gain for Qatar
- Saudi Arabia ended a nearly four year long blockade of Qatar, another American ally, after Mr. Biden was elected President. It has also signalled that it would carry out domestic reforms keeping human rights in focus. But it is yet to make any definite moves to wrap up the Yemen conflict.
(v). Saudi-Arabia’s Role in Yemen
- Yemen is a case study for a war that has gone wrong on all fronts. When the Saudis started bombing the country in March 2015, their plan was to oust the Houthis from Sana’a and restore a pro-Riyadh government. Despite the Saudi-led attacks, the Houthis held on to the territories they captured, while the Saudi-backed government of President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi was teetering on the brink of collapse. Saudi Arabia has failed to oust the Houthis from Sana’a and is now facing frequent rocket and drone attacks by the rebels.
(vi). Role of UAE in Yemen
After five years of fighting, the United Arab Emirates pulled out of the war last year. And the UAE-backed Southern Transitional Council wants southern Yemen to be an independent entity. While these multiple factions continued to fight, more than 10,000 people were killed in attacks and tens of thousands more died of preventable diseases. Yemen also stares at famine. It is a lose-lose war for everyone. The Houthis are living in permanent war, unable to provide even basic services to the people in the territories they control.
Yemen’s internationally recognised government practically lacks any power and legitimacy at home as the war is being fought by other players. Ending the war is in the best interest of all parties. Mr. Biden should push Saudi Arabia and its allies to end their blockade of Yemen and initiate talks with the country’s multiple rebel factions.
Commentary : Fuzzy law, unclear jurisprudence, trampled rights
On February 1, 2021, in the wake of the intensification of the farmers’ protests and reports of violent incidents on January 26 – a number of Twitter accounts became inaccessible in India.
As outrage mounted, the Government of India clarified that it had invoked Section 69A of the Information Technology Act, and ordered Twitter to block access to these accounts. The reason, it appeared, was the use of the hashtag #ModiPlanningFarmerGenocide, which was deemed a threat to public order.
Soon after, Twitter restored access to many of the withheld accounts. This prompted a sharp reaction from the government. Twitter’s employees would be prosecuted for violating Section 69A. The government’s own actions in directing it to withhold access to the accounts of journalists, activists, and politicians, violated Indian law, and the constitutional guarantee of the freedom of speech.
(ii). Legal Analysis
These events of the last few days throw into sharp relief the unsatisfactory state of Indian law and how it is interpreted and applied by censorship happy governments. The root of the problem is Section 69A of the IT Act.
There are a number of problems with this legal structure. The first is that it makes censorship an easy and almost completely costless option, for the government. Second, the confidentiality requirement means that the user will not even know why their account has been blocked and, therefore, will be in no position to challenge it. Third, there are no procedural safeguards – no opportunity for a hearing to affected parties, and no need for reasoned orders.
A combination of bad law and unclear jurisprudence has created a situation where Twitter or the intermediary that might be caught in the government’s crosshairs is the only entity that is in a position to defend the free speech rights of Indian citizens. There is, thus, an urgent need for both legal and jurisprudential reform.
What’s new : Clubhouse : The new kid in town
- It is being touted as the next big thing in social media. It was launched last March and already has 2 million users and is reportedly worth $1 billion. It is funded by one of the most prominent venture capital ﬁrms in the world, Andreessen Horowitz. Clubhouse, the app that describes itself as “a new type of network based on voice”, has generated a lot of buzz in recent weeks.
(ii). The new concept
Clubhouse app is centred around people talking real time, no cameras on. “Voice is so universal but in the world of social networking, it’s relatively new,” Paul Davison, Clubhouse’s co-founder, said.
Once inside the app, what you see are ‘rooms’, lots and lots of them. Each ‘room’ is a space where a conversation is happening. You can enter one, listen in, even participate if allowed. It is much like having a wide choice of radio channels but here you can take part too. Also, you can even start a ‘room’ of your own.
Coming into the scene much after the disruptive new conversational spaces brought forth by the ﬁrst generation of social media networks such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram, Clubhouse may not operate by the playbook of its predecessors. “The focus is on authentic human connection and dialogue rather than likes or followers”, said Mr. Davison. There is also no record of Clubhouse conversations to come back to. If you miss them once, you miss them forever.
Not everything is for everyone. It can be a private conversation that one has with one more person, much like a phone conversation, or something that reaches many, many people. The decision about who should be let into a conversation rests with those who initiate the conversation. Clubhouse also can’t be immune to the issues of hate speech and dis information faced by other platforms, and it insists systems to deal with them are in place. It wants to build monetisation strategies for its creators, so that they can make money from listeners via subscription and tickets.
1. Para Athletics : India claims four more gold medals
- Indian men’s javelin throwers came up with a brilliant show as reigning World champion Sandeep Chaudhary (F44), Ajeet Singh (F46) and Navdeep (F41) won gold on the third day of the 12th Fazza International World Para Athletics Grand Prix on Friday. They were later joined by Pranav Prashant Desai in the men’s 200m F64, while World champion javelin thrower Sundar Singh Gurjar (F46) ﬁnished with a bronze. Navdeep and Arvind also secured quotas for the upcoming Tokyo Paralympics as India’s tally swelled to 17 medals, including nine gold.
1. The wages of struggle : Putting Impunity First https://www.livelaw.in/columns/the-wages-of-struggle-putting-impunity-first-dr-upendra-baxis-kannabiran-memorial-lectures-169852
2. Wider access to legal resources https://www.livelaw.in/columns/supreme-courts-e-committee-legal-resources-scrs-and-ilrs-169847
4. Cruelty to animals https://www.lawnn.com/cruelty-to-animals/
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Sources referred to : The Hindu, The Indian Express, Live Law, Bar & Bench